Archive for the ‘Pornography’ Category

When someone watches pornography, what is it that first captures their attention? Most people would probably guess the actors’ bodies and/or genitals, especially if they’re talking about male porn viewers. Although this would seem to make intuitive sense, is it really the case? According to research, not necessarily.

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מקור : הבלוג “הומו סאפיינס” של גיל גרינגרוז.

בפוסט קודם נתתי רקע לגבי מה שאני חושב הוא ההסבר השלם ביותר לצריכה המאסיבית של פורנוגרפיה בימינו. כמובן שאם לפורנוגרפיה יש בסיס אבולוציוני, תוצר לוואי של אדפטציות שהמין שלנו עבר במשך מיליוני שנים, אין זה אומר שהצפייה בה היא משהו טבעי ורצוי, או שאין לה השלכות שליליות. מעבר לעניין ההתמכרות שהיא תמיד לא רצויה, לפורנוגרפיה יכולות להיות השלכות שליליות רבות על הצופים והיא גם מתקיימת בעולם חברתי מסוים. השאלה אם כן, היא מהן אותם ההשפעות של צפייה בפורנוגרפיה על הצופה?

התחלתי את הדיון בנושא בבחינה של הטענה שהתוכן המוצג בסרטי פורנו משפיל נשים. המידע שהתקבל ממחקר בנושא לא מצא לכך תימוכין. כמובן, העובדה שפורנוגרפיה כשלעצמה אינה משפילה נשים לא אומרת שאין לה השפעות שליליות על הצופים. הרבה נכתב על ההשפעות ההרסניות של פורנוגרפיה. ישנם כאלו שמאשימים אותה בעידוד אלימות נגד נשים. אחרים מבקרים את הנזק שהיא גורמת ליחסים בין גברים ונשים, לזוגיות ויחסי מין בכלל. נטען שהיא הורסת נישואין, שגברים באים בדרישות לא הגיוניות מבנות זוגן כמו גילוח שיער הערווה או תנוחות מיניות שהנשים אינן מעוניינות בהן או נהנות מהן, שהיא מייצרת ציפיות לא ריאליות מאנשים בזמן סקס, שהיא פוגעת בתפקוד המיני של הגבר שלא יכול להתגרות מזוגתו אחרי שצפה בפורנו, ועוד ועוד. הבעייה עם הטענות הללו היא שיש מעט מאוד מחקרים אמפיריים על הנושא, ורוב המסקנות מתבססות על עדויות אנקדוטיות, אם בכלל. יחסית לתחומים אחרים שמרכזיים לחיי אנשים, המחקר בנושא מצומצם מאוד וניתן בהחלט להצטער על כך (יש סיבות רבות לכך, למשל החשש של חוקרים לגעת בנושאים שנויים במחלוקת שיגרום לכך שיותקפו ויוקעו על ידי אחרים). למרות זאת, בשנים האחרונות יש כמה מחקרים מעניינים שאני מעוניין לסקור בפוסט הזה.   המשך לקרא…

Published on January 21, 2010 by Gad Saad, Ph.D. in Homo Consumericus
For the past several decades, a debate has raged as to whether or not pornography yields deleterious effects at the individual and/or societal levels (e.g., increased negative views toward women; increased rate of sexual crimes against women). In many instances, those who have sought to link pornography to countless ills have been ideologically motivated, as the aggregate scientific evidence hardly supports such conclusions. See chapter 6 of my book The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption (p. 228-235) for some relevant references on pornography. Continue Reading…

Gert Martin Hald
Neil M. Malamuth

The self-perceived effects of “hardcore” pornography consumption were studied in a large representative sample of young adult Danish men and women aged 18–30. Using a survey that included the newly developed Pornography Consumption Effect Scale, we assessed participants’ reports of how pornography has affected them personally in various areas, including their sexual knowledge, attitudes toward sex, attitudes toward and perception of the opposite sex, sex life, and general quality of life. Across all areas investigated, participants reported only small, if any, negative effects with men reporting slightly more negative effects than women. In contrast, moderate positive effects were generally reported by both men and women, with men reporting significantly more positive effects than women. For both sexes, sexual background factors were found to significantly predict both positive and negative effects of pornography consumption. Although the proportion of variance in positive effects accounted for by sexual background factors was substantial, it was small for negative effects. We discuss how the findings may be interpreted differently by supporters and opponents of pornography due to the reliance in this study on reported self-perceptions of effects. Nonetheless, we conclude that the overall findings suggest that many young Danish adults believe that pornography has had primarily a positive effect on various aspects of .  their lives.

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*Catherine Salmon
Department of Psychology, University of Redlands

Amy Diamond
Department of Psychology, Loma Linda University

This study focuses on the relative frequencies of various sexual activities and the ways in
which those activities are portrayed in homosexual and heterosexual pornographic films.
Many anti-pornography arguments are based on the alleged oppression and degradation
of women in pornography. Others (Salmon & Symons, 2001) have suggested that the
main focus of pornography is not about contempt for women and that if it was, gay
pornography should differ dramatically from heterosexual pornography. This paper tests
that hypothesis. Sixty films that ranked amongst the most popular heterosexual and
homosexual DVDs were examined with regard to the types of sexual activities that occur
and the interactions between the participants. We found few major differences in
pornography aimed at a homosexual versus heterosexual male audience, other than those
that reflect the different anatomy involved, and none that reflect an anti-female agenda.

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We have looked at the empirical evidence of the well-known feminist dictum: “pornography is the theory–rape is the practice” (Morgan, 1980). While earlier research, notably that generated by the U.S. Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (1970) had found no evidence of a causal link between pornography and rape, a new generation of behavioral scientists have, for more than a decade, made considerable effort to prove such a connection, especially as far as “aggressive pornography” is concerned. The first part of the article examines and discusses the findings of this new research. A number of laboratory experiments have been conducted, much akin to the types of experiments developed by researchers of the effects of nonsexual media violence. As in the latter, a certain degree of increased “aggressiveness” has been found under certain circumstances, but to extrapolate from such laboratory effects to the commission of rape in real life is dubious. Studies of rapists’ and nonrapists’ immediate sexual reactions to presentations of pornography showed generally greater arousal to non-violent scenes, and no difference can be found in this regard between convicted rapists, nonsexual criminals and noncriminal males. In the second part of the paper an attempt was made to study the necessary precondition for a substantial causal relationship between the availability of pornography, including aggressive pornography, and rape–namely, that obviously increased availability of such material was followed by an increase in cases of reported rape. The development of rape and attempted rape during the period 1964-1984 was studied in four countries: the U.S.A., Denmark, Sweden and West Germany. In all four countries there is clear and undisputed evidence that during this period the availability of various forms of pictorial pornography including violent/dominant varieties (in the form of picture magazines, and films/videos used at home or shown in arcades or cinemas) has developed from extreme scarcity to relative abundance. If (violent) pornography causes rape, this exceptional development in the availability of (violent) pornography should definitely somehow influence the rape statistics. Since, however, the rape figures could not simply be expected to remain steady during the period in question (when it is well known that most other crimes increased considerably), the development of rape rates was compared with that of non-sexual violent offences and nonviolent sexual offences (in so far as available statistics permitted). The results showed that in none of the countries did rape increase more than nonsexual violent crimes. This finding in itself would seem sufficient to discard the hypothesis that pornography causes rape.



Department of Psychology, Shippensburg University, Shippensburg, PA 17257, USA.


The damaged goods hypothesis posits that female performers in the adult entertainment industry have higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), psychological problems, and drug use compared to the typical woman. The present study compared the self-reports of 177 porn actresses to a sample of women matched on age, ethnicity, and marital status. Comparisons were conducted on sexual behaviors and attitudes, self-esteem, quality of life, and drug use. Porn actresses were more likely to identify as bisexual, first had sex at an earlier age, had more sexual partners, were more concerned about contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD), and enjoyed sex more than the matched sample, although there were no differences in incidence of CSA. In terms of psychological characteristics, porn actresses had higher levels of self-esteem, positive feelings, social support, sexual satisfaction, and spirituality compared to the matched group. Last, female performers were more likely to have ever used 10 different types of drugs compared to the comparison group. A discriminant function analysis was able to correctly classify 83% of the participants concerning whether they were a porn actress or member of the matched sample. These findings did not provide support for the damaged goods hypothesis.

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